Cocktail - Coexistence of and confrontation between different forms of agriculture in the territories


Across the world, the transformation of agriculture and societies is leading to situations in which contrasting social and technical forms of agriculture are forced to coexist. These reconstructions of agricultural forms call for a re-examination of farm contours and rationales, farmer strategies and farmer identities. We are witness to dramatic mutations of agriculture’s social configurations (financialized, contractualized, modular, large-scale, multi-activity, urban, collective action, etc.). Also taking place is a differentiation of its technical forms (agro-ecological production methods that are territorialized, hyper-specialized, hyper-simplified, soil-free, no-till, etc.). Thus, within the same territory, there coexist forms of agriculture with very different technical and socio-economic rationales, arising from a historical differentiation.


The aim of the Cocktail group is to analyze and support the transformation of agricultural activity systems in terms of the diversity of development models and the conditions under which these models conflict with one another.

Research topics

  • Analyzing the trajectories of activity systems in terms of the various forms of agriculture that are appearing in the territories. These forms of agriculture call into question systems of standards, the corpus of technical and social practices, institutions, identities, discourses, knowledge and know-how. We evaluate the performance of these different forms of agriculture by developing and using criteria and indicators that go beyond the simple function of production and which fully recognize all of the other benefits of a particular agricultural activity (employment, non-production ecosystem services, food security, food sovereignty, health, etc.).
  • Understanding the modalities of juxtapositions, linkages or clashes between different forms of agriculture in the territory, especially at the local level. Does coexistence bolster the adaptability of the systems involved (territories, food systems, innovation systems, etc.)? Are we witnessing a proliferation of innovation hotbeds?
  • Supporting farmers in their efforts to change their activity systems. Given the diversity of situations, what methods and tools to use to do so, and in conjunction with which organizations?

Diversity of innovations

The Cocktail group focuses on farmer-oriented innovations by concentrating on those that can be described as invisible innovations, farmer innovations or bottom-up innovations.


The disciplines involved are geography, agro-economics, sociology, ethnology and agronomy of practices.


Cocktail’s activities take place in France (Languedoc-Roussillon, Hautes Alpes, Overseas departments), Latin America (Brazil, Argentina, Costa Rica, Ecuador) and Africa (Madagascar).


Scientific partnerships:

  •  Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA, Brésil)
  •  Centro Agronómico Tropical de Investigación y Enseñenza (CATIE)
  •  World Agroforestery Center (ICRAF, Kenya).

Scientific associations:

  • Association des Sciences Régionales de Langue Française (ASRDLF)
  • Société Française des Economistes Ruraux (SFER)
  •  International Farming System Association (IFSA)

Development partnerships: Public services, agricultural associations and organizations, agents of advisory-support organizations.

  • El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (Ecosur, Mexique)
  • Instituto Nacional de technología Agropecuaria (Inta, Argentine)
  • Universitad Federal do Pará (UFP, Brésil)
  • Laboratoire International Agriterris

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